Установка графической оболочки в ubuntu server 18.04

Download Ubuntu 19.10

Images can be downloaded from a location near you.

You can download ISOs and flashable images from:

http://releases.ubuntu.com/19.10/ (Ubuntu Desktop and Server for AMD64) http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/releases/19.10/release/ (Less Frequently Downloaded Ubuntu Images) http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/daily/server/eoan/current/ (Ubuntu Cloud Images) http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/netboot/19.10/ (Ubuntu Netboot) http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/kubuntu/releases/19.10/release/ (Kubuntu) http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/lubuntu/releases/19.10/release/ (Lubuntu) http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-budgie/releases/19.10/release/ (Ubuntu Budgie) http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntukylin/releases/19.10/release/ (Ubuntu Kylin) http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-mate/releases/19.10/release/ (Ubuntu MATE) http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntustudio/releases/19.10/release/ (Ubuntu Studio) http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/xubuntu/releases/19.10/release/ (Xubuntu)

TCP/IP Configuration

The TCP/IP protocol configuration consists of several elements which must be set by editing the appropriate configuration files, or deploying solutions such as the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server which in turn, can be configured to provide the proper TCP/IP configuration settings to network clients automatically. These configuration values must be set correctly in order to facilitate the proper network operation of your Ubuntu system.

The common configuration elements of TCP/IP and their purposes are as follows:

  • IP address The IP address is a unique identifying string expressed as four decimal numbers ranging from zero (0) to two-hundred and fifty-five (255), separated by periods, with each of the four numbers representing eight (8) bits of the address for a total length of thirty-two (32) bits for the whole address. This format is called dotted quad notation.

  • Netmask The Subnet Mask (or simply, netmask) is a local bit mask, or set of flags which separate the portions of an IP address significant to the network from the bits significant to the subnetwork. For example, in a Class C network, the standard netmask is which masks the first three bytes of the IP address and allows the last byte of the IP address to remain available for specifying hosts on the subnetwork.

  • Network Address The Network Address represents the bytes comprising the network portion of an IP address. For example, the host in a Class A network would use as the network address, where twelve (12) represents the first byte of the IP address, (the network part) and zeroes (0) in all of the remaining three bytes to represent the potential host values. A network host using the private IP address would in turn use a Network Address of, which specifies the first three bytes of the Class C 192.168.1 network and a zero (0) for all the possible hosts on the network.

  • Broadcast Address The Broadcast Address is an IP address which allows network data to be sent simultaneously to all hosts on a given subnetwork rather than specifying a particular host. The standard general broadcast address for IP networks is, but this broadcast address cannot be used to send a broadcast message to every host on the Internet because routers block it. A more appropriate broadcast address is set to match a specific subnetwork. For example, on the private Class C IP network,, the broadcast address is Broadcast messages are typically produced by network protocols such as the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and the Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

  • Gateway Address A Gateway Address is the IP address through which a particular network, or host on a network, may be reached. If one network host wishes to communicate with another network host, and that host is not located on the same network, then a gateway must be used. In many cases, the Gateway Address will be that of a router on the same network, which will in turn pass traffic on to other networks or hosts, such as Internet hosts. The value of the Gateway Address setting must be correct, or your system will not be able to reach any hosts beyond those on the same network.

  • Nameserver Address Nameserver Addresses represent the IP addresses of Domain Name Service (DNS) systems, which resolve network hostnames into IP addresses. There are three levels of Nameserver Addresses, which may be specified in order of precedence: The Primary Nameserver, the Secondary Nameserver, and the Tertiary Nameserver. In order for your system to be able to resolve network hostnames into their corresponding IP addresses, you must specify valid Nameserver Addresses which you are authorized to use in your system’s TCP/IP configuration. In many cases these addresses can and will be provided by your network service provider, but many free and publicly accessible nameservers are available for use, such as the Level3 (Verizon) servers with IP addresses from to

    Access the system manual page for with the following command:

What Is a Linux Server Operating System?

What differentiates a Linux server operating system from a general Linux distribution? Consider server hardware. Servers are essentially computers with specialized specifications. For instance, server hardware ensures maximum uptime, efficiency, and security. Additionally, servers balance computing power with power consumption. Similarly, Linux server operating systems prioritize security and resource consumption.

A Linux server operating system serves content to client devices. Accordingly, server operating systems feature tools for simple server creation. Because servers commonly run headless, the graphical user interface (GUI) in a Linux server operating system remains less important.

According to IDC, hardware sales data indicates that 28 percent of servers are Linux-based. However this likely doesn’t account for home labbers. While there are dedicated Linux server operating systems, you may roll your own. The key here is to use a Long Term Service (LTS) iteration and install your desired software. LTS flavors provide stability and a longer support cycle.

When selecting a Linux server operating system, also consider your use. Using your Linux computer as a media server differs from setting up a game server.


  • The computer suspends after 20 minutes of inactivity on battery power even if a user is logged in remotely. (GNOME:gnome-control-center#22)

  • Bluetooth audio devices cannot be used in the Greeter. This will cause issues for people using the accessibility features such as screenreaders at the login screen. Once logged in everything should work as expected.
  • Some admin utilities will not work with GNOME on Wayland since the apps have not been adapted to use PolicyKit to only use admin privileges for the specific functions needed. Also, some screenshot and screencast apps and all remote desktop server apps do not currently work on GNOME on Wayland. As a workaround, you can use the default Ubuntu session.

  • Exiting the live session may get stuck with a «A start job is running for » error. You may need to forcefully power off the computer if you see this. ()

  • The Dock and Appindicator system extensions appear to be Off in tools like GNOME Tweaks. (They are on but cannot be disabled because they are system extensions for the Ubuntu session.) ()

  • Tracker is not installed by default. When installed, you must log out and log back in for the tracker service to start ()

  • Systems may fail to boot when connected over DisplayPort to an external screen, on NVidia graphics hardware such as the GTX970 chipset. ()

  • When an external monitor is connected to a laptop, the login screen is only displayed on the internal one and in some case is not visible ()

  • The warning dialog when a user force a UEFI installation does not respond to input event and the installation is then blocked at this stage () Avoid yourself some troubles and do not force a UEFI installation without a UEFI partition, grub-installer will fail anyway.

  • Doing an «Entire disk» installation over an existing LVM installation will fail because the installer selects the wrong boot device () Use custom partitioning instead and manually select the right boot device in the combo box.

  • The Files app remains at 3.26.

  • Upgrading via the installer (Ubiquity) is deemed not safe due to bugs in apt-clone and so is no longer supported. () UIFE — remove ubiquity upgrade option.

  • Setting a ulimit may cause segfaults in certain applications, especially those using webkit2gtk. Disabling the ulimit should restore normal functionality. More information in this Debian news entry: https://salsa.debian.org/webkit-team/webkit/blob/wk2/unstable/debian/NEWS

  • The installer can crash, especially noticeable on HiDPI screens where scaling has been applied (). The workaround is to boot into the live session, change Settings > Devices > Displays > Scale = 100%, click Apply and proceed with installation by clicking «Install Ubuntu 18.04 LTS».

  • The installer may not use the EFI partition you expect it to use (). If you’ve experienced this, this bug comment has advice to repair the situation: https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/ubiquity/+bug/1396379/comments/8


Image Credit: Wikipedia

CentOS provides a stable environment. It’s an open-source derivative of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). Thus, CentOS delivers an enterprise-class server experience. The Red Hat sponsored operating system uses the exact source code as found in RHEL. CentOS employs the RPM package manager. In 2010, survey data found that about 30 percent of all Linux servers operated on CentOS. There’s a reason: it’s a very stable server environment with Red Hat sponsorship (which now translates to funding from IBM).

Notably, CentOS functions well on mainframes. For users that prefer a GUI, KDE and GNOME are both available. CentOS can be used as a straightforward desktop environment. Because of Red Hat support and a thriving community, CentOS remains bug free.

Who should use this: CentOS provides the functionality and stability of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Therefore it’s perfect for advanced Linux server operating system. Use CentOS if you’re looking for a free RHEL alternative. However CentOS is fairly beginner friendly because it retains a package manager. Overall, CentOS is best as a free Red Hat Enterprise Linux alternative.

TCP/IP Introduction

The two protocol components of TCP/IP deal with different aspects of computer networking. Internet Protocol, the “IP” of TCP/IP is a connectionless protocol which deals only with network packet routing using the IP Datagram as the basic unit of networking information. The IP Datagram consists of a header followed by a message. The Transmission Control Protocol is the “TCP” of TCP/IP and enables network hosts to establish connections which may be used to exchange data streams. TCP also guarantees that the data between connections is delivered and that it arrives at one network host in the same order as sent from another network host.

Установка Webmin на Ubuntu Server 16.04

Далеко не всегда удобно администрировать систему посредством консоли. Многие специалисты предпочитают настраивать сервер и управлять им посредством панели управления с веб-интерфейсом. Ранее было показано, как установить панель управления сервером VestaCP. В этой статье будет рассмотрена другая панель управления — Webmin.

Особенности программы

Программа, как и VestaCP, является бесплатной (платные панели мы не рассматриваем — ведь установка такой панели добавит лишних затрат, а они никому не нужны).

Вот только если поддержка у VestaCP платная, но она есть, то у рассматриваемого программного комплекса поддержки как таковой нет — ни платной, ни бесплатной. Если у вас что-то не получилось, вы можете попросить помощи на форумах сообщества пользователей программы.

К счастью, какие-либо сложности с настройкой и использованием приложения возникают редко, поэтому не думаю, что вам когда-либо придется познакомиться с сообществом.

В поставке по умолчанию программа содержит более 500 различных скриптов, которые можно использовать для настройки различных компонентов системы.

Благодаря этим скриптам возможностей у бесплатного софта будет больше, чем у VestaCP, где некоторые модули, например, файловый менеджер, придется покупать (50 долларов пожизненно или 3 доллара в месяц).

Установка Webmin

Установка панели управления в данной статье будет производиться на виртуальный серверный компьютер, работающий под управлением Ubuntu 16.04.

Первым делом установите файловый менеджер mc, чтобы было удобнее работать, в том числе изменять содержимое конфигурационных файлов. Подключитесь к серверу по ssh и введите команду (платформа xelent.

cloud предоставляет серверы с активированной учетной записью root, поэтому команда sudo не нужна):

apt-get install mc

Далее нам нужно подключить репозитарий с Webmin Ubuntu server 16.04. Для этого откройте файл /etc/apt/sources.list и добавьте в него строки:

deb http://download.webmin.com/download/repository sarge contrib deb http://webmin.mirror.somersettechsolutions.co.uk/repository sarge contrib.

Рис. 1. Редактирование /etc/apt/sources.list

Добавьте GPG-ключ:

wget http://www.webmin.com/jcameron-key.asc apt-key add jcameron-key.asc

Рис. 2. GPG-ключ установлен

Осталось обновить списки пакетов и загрузить на Ubuntu Server Webmin:

apt-get update apt-get install webmin

Webmin Ubuntu 16.04 установка будет считаться завершенной после обновления правила брандмауэра. Чтобы веб-интерфейс мог беспрепятственно работать, надо ввести следующую команду:

ufw allow 10000

Собственно, на этом все. Можно считать, что на Ubuntu Server установка Webmin завершена!

Если облака для вас не просто теория

Широкий спектр услуг по выделенным северам

и мультиклауд-решениям

Вход в панель управления

Запустите браузер и введите адрес:


Браузер сообщит, что сертификат SSL не является доверенным (рис. 3), добавьте соответствующее исключение в браузер (рис. 4). После этого вы увидите форму входа — используйте имя пользователя и пароль с привилегиями root (по умолчанию — это пользователь root, пароль которого отображается в панели управления сервером xelent.cloud).

Рис. 3. Сертификат на Ubuntu 16.04 Webmin не является доверенным

Рис. 4. Добавляем исключение безопасности

Рис. 5. Вход в приложение

Основной экран программы изображен на рис. 6. Теперь вы можете Webmin настроить, а затем приступить к управлению своим сервером посредством веб-интерфейса.

Рис. 6. Основной экран программы

По умолчанию язык интерфейса — английский. Русифицировать приложение очень просто. Панели управления Webmin настройка производится через ее конфигурацию (рис. 7). Там выберите раздел Language, далее — выберите русский язык из списка (рис. 8) и нажмите кнопку Change language. После проделанных манипуляций язык будет изменен на русский (рис. 9).

Рис. 7. Конфигурация панели управления

Рис. 8. Выбираем язык

Рис. 9. Панель управления русифицирована


Image Credit: Wikipedia

Mageia is a Linux operating system that prioritizes security and stability. It’s a fork of Mandriva Linux that debuted in 2010. A 2012 PC World praised Mageia, now on its fifth iteration. Although there are many Linux operating systems, there’s also a big list of Linux desktop environments. Mageia includes a bevy of environments such as KDE, GNOME, Xfce, and LXDE.

Rather than MySQL, Mageia includes MariaDB. Server-centric inclusions like the 389 Directory Server and Kolab Groupware Server make Mageia a stellar Linux server operating system.

Who should use this: Mageia is a dependable Linux server operating system. It’s loaded with tools like MariaDB and Kolab Groupware Server. Plus, Mageia and boasts a stable, secure environment. Users who require a GUI should consider Mageia because of its myriad of desktop environments.


X Server

You can run a separate X server (Switchable to by Ctrl+Alt+8..0) which will query for XDMCP Connection e.g:

sudo Xorg -terminate -query $REMOTE_HOST :1

This will start another X server at VT8. $REMOTE_HOST is the hostname or an IP address that is running XDMCP server. :1 is the number of the display. The default display you are using is :0 and can be seen in $DISPLAY variable. «-terminate» option can be specified to shut down X server once the session is finished and X server is reset.


To enable XDMCP in Remmina run the following:

sudo apt-get install remmina-plugin-xdmcp

This plugin depends on Xephyr, a X server outputting to a window on a pre-existing X display.

Xephyr directly

Xephyr -query $REMOTE_HOST :1

To set window size, use -screen WIDTHxHEIGHT option. Option -fullscreen will run Xephyr in full screen mode. To capture and release mouse pointer and keyboard use Ctrl+Shift. $REMOTE_HOST is the hostname or an IP address that is running XDMCP server.

To enable XDMCP in tsclient, run the following command:

sudo apt-get install xnest

Xming for Windows

Xming is an X server for Microsoft Windows. Officially it supports Windows XP, Server 2003, and Vista. It appears to work on (64-bit) Windows 7 as well.

It supports being an XDMCP client, but this is not officially documented in the manual.

First download it from sourceforgeand install it.

You can then connect to server with IP address of by running the following command on 32-bit Windows:

"C:\Program Files\Xming\Xming.exe" -query -clipboard

or on 64-bit Windows

"C:\Program Files (x86)\Xming\Xming.exe" -query -clipboard

You can replace the IP address with a hostname as well.

Please note that many of the other command line switches in Xming do not work with -query for XDMCP. This includes -wgl for 3d acceleration; using

Xming.exe +extension Composite -query ...

may help in older version (is enabled by default since

Please note, do not run any 3d programs as that program will crash, leave a black box for the area of the session, and you will have to kill the 3d program manually. The default kill level does not work, although kill -5 does.

To make connecting to a specified server more convenient, you can browse to the (regular) Xming shortcut in the start menu. Copy and paste it to the Xming folder. Then edit the copy of the shortcut by right-clicking and going to properties. Edit the name under the general tab to be whatever you want. Edit the target under the shortcut tab to be what is listed in the above examples (remove the default switches like -multiwindow .)


ClearOS is specifically engineered for servers, gateway machines, and network systems. The standard install features security enhancements. There’s a default firewall, bandwidth management tools, a mail server, and intrusion detection. ClearOS 7 Community Edition sports a whopping 75 apps and tools.

While there are paid ClearOS tiers, the Community Edition remains free. Additionally, ClearOS updates are completely free from upstream sources. However, these free updates aren’t tested.

Who should use this: ClearOS is a dedicated Linux server operating. Its wide-ranging app store posits ClearOS as a distro for Linux gurus. Hobbyists and Linux specialists need only apply. Novice users, opt for a different server distribution.

SSH Keys

SSH allow authentication between two hosts without the need of a password. SSH key authentication uses a private key and a public key.

To generate the keys, from a terminal prompt enter:

This will generate the keys using the RSA Algorithm. At the time of this writing, the generated keys will have 3072 bits. You can modify the number of bits by using the option. For example, to generate keys with 4096 bits, you can do:

During the process you will be prompted for a password. Simply hit Enter when prompted to create the key.

By default the public key is saved in the file , while is the private key. Now copy the file to the remote host and append it to by entering:

Finally, double check the permissions on the file, only the authenticated user should have read and write permissions. If the permissions are not correct change them by:

You should now be able to SSH to the host without being prompted for a password.

Updated Packages

Ubuntu 18.04.4 ships with a v5.3 based Linux kernel updated from the v5.0 based kernel in 18.04.3. This enables the latest hardware and peripherals available from IBM, Intel, and others. The 18.04 kernel delivers new features inherited from upstream, including:

  • New support for a number of new Intel and AMD graphics chipsets
  • New default networking queue management algorithms to improve networking on slow and congested links
  • Preliminary support for WiFi 6 (802.11ax)

  • BTRFS swap file support
  • New block I/O latency controller
  • Numerous security related improvements

We also see notable Ubuntu specific achievements with:

  • Further AppArmor and security module improvements

  • shiftfs filesystem providing LXD performance improvements

As well as the usual myriad of bug fixes for supported platforms.


As of 18.04.4, OpenJDK 11 is the default in 18.04.

OpenJDK 8 has moved to universe and will remain available there for the life of 18.04, to provide migration time for packages, custom applications, or scripts that can’t be build with OpenJDK 11. OpenJDK 8 will be updated in 18.04 until Ubuntu 16.04 LTS reaches EOL in April 2021.


The default OpenSSL has been upgraded from 1.1.0 to 1.1.1 LTS series bringing improved performance and ability to use TLSv1.3 in select packages. Co-installable 1.0.2n series OpenSSL remains to be available as well.

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