Python 2 vs python 3

Python 2.2

We are extremely pleased to announce the release of Python
(final), on December 21, 2001. Our thanks to everyone who has
contributed to the Python 2.2 development cycle, our CVS committers,
PEP authors, alpha and beta testers, bug and patch submitters, etc.
You know who you are! 🙂

Please see the separate bugs page for known
bugs in Python 2.2 final, and the bug reporting procedure.

Download the release

Windows users should download Python-2.2.exe, the
Windows installer, from one of the download locations below,
run it, and follow the friendly instructions on the screen to complete
the installation.
Windows users may also be interested in Mark
Hammond’s win32all, a collection of Windows-specific extensions including
COM support and Pythonwin, an IDE built using Windows components.

Update (2002/04/23): Windows users should download a new UNWISE.EXE from Wise that
fixes a bug which could cause the uninstaller to disappear in some
circumstances. Just drop it over the old uninstaller, which will be
at C:\Python22\UNWISE.EXE unless you chose a different
directory at install time.

Macintosh users can find Python 2.2 prereleases on Jack
Jansen’s MacPython
page (after following the link, scroll towards the bottom). This
is sometimes one or two releases behind, so be patient. (MacOS X
users who have a C compiler can also build from the source tarball

All others should download Python-2.2.tgz, the
source tarball, from one of the download locations below, and
do the usual «gunzip; tar; configure; make» dance.

MD5 checksums and sizes

    568cf638ef5fc4edfdb4cc878d661129 Python-2.2.exe (7074248 bytes)
    87febf0780c8e18454022d34b2ca70a0 Python-2.2.tgz (6542443 bytes)
    9ae1d572cbd2bfd4e0c4b92ac11387c6 UNWISE.EXE (162304 bytes)

What’s New?


Tim Peters developed a brand new Windows installer using Wise 8.1,
generously donated to us by
Wise Solutions.

Type/Class Unification: A new way of introspecting instances of
built-in types (PEP
252) and the ability to subclass built-in types (PEP 253) have been
added. Here is a tutorial on these

Iterators (PEP 234) and
generators (PEP
255) were added. The second PEP adds a new reserved word,
«yield», which must be enabled by adding «from __future__ import
generators» to the top of every module that uses it. Without that,
«yield» is treated as an identifier but a warning is issued.

The floor division operator // has been added as outlined in
238. The / operator still provides classic division (and will until
Python 3.0) unless «from __future__ import division» is included, in
which case the / operator will provide true division.

Integer overflow is now a thing of the past; when small integer
operations have a result that’s too large to represent as a small
integer, a long integer is now returned. See PEP 237.

Fredrik Lundh’s
xmlrpclib is now a standard library module.
This provides full client-side XML-RPC support. A server class is
also provided (module SimpleXMLRPCServer).

Large file support is now enabled on Win32 and Win64 platforms,
and automatically configured (at least on Linux and Solaris).

Other sources of information on 2.2

Unifying types and classes in Python
2.2 by Guido van Rossum — a tutorial on the material covered by
PEPs 252 and 253.

What’s New in Python
2.2 by Andrew Kuchling describes the most visible changes since Python 2.1.

Guido gave a talk on what’s new in 2.2 at the ZPUG-DC meeting
on September 26, 2001; here are his powerpoint slides.

Charming Python: Iterators and simple generators by David Mertz
on IBM developerWorks.

For a detailed list of all but the most trivial changes, see
the release notes.

In the source distribution, the file Misc/NEWS has all the news.

  • Browse HTML on-line

  • Download using HTTP.

Python NumPy

NumPy IntroNumPy Getting StartedNumPy Creating ArraysNumPy Array IndexingNumPy Array SlicingNumPy Data TypesNumPy Copy vs ViewNumPy Array ShapeNumPy Array ReshapeNumPy Array IteratingNumPy Array JoinNumPy Array SplitNumPy Array SearchNumPy Array SortNumPy Array FilterNumPy Random
Random Intro
Data Distribution
Random Permutation
Seaborn Module
Normal Distribution
Binomial Distribution
Poisson Distribution
Uniform Distribution
Logistic Distribution
Multinomial Distribution
Exponential Distribution
Chi Square Distribution
Rayleigh Distribution
Pareto Distribution
Zipf Distribution

NumPy ufunc
ufunc Intro
ufunc Create Function
ufunc Simple Arithmetic
ufunc Rounding Decimals
ufunc Logs
ufunc Summations
ufunc Products
ufunc Differences
ufunc Finding LCM
ufunc Finding GCD
ufunc Trigonometric
ufunc Hyperbolic
ufunc Set Operations

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